Do you want to learn why Database backups are different from file backups? Click HERE to find out.
Do you want to learn why
are different from file backups?
Click HERE to find out.
Selecting and Excluding Mount points
If you select the data you want to backup by domain at the client side, then you would use DOMAIN statements in the dsm.sys file on Linux or Unix clients. Typical statements would look like this
You can use multiple DOMAIN statements, of just combine all the mount points in one DOMAIN statement, separated by spaces. If you don't want to list out all your mount points, then you can use 'DOMAIN ALL-LOCAL' which will pick up all mount points, but there is an issue with Linux file systems as the root (/) file system is automounted and the DOMAIN ALL-LOCAL option causes the client to back up all local file systems except LOFS file systems and LOFS through automounter. As the root file system is automounted, it will not be processed by a simple DOMAIN ALL-LOCAL. Instead, you need to use
DOMAIN ALL-LOCAL /
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How to configure an extra DSMCAD on Linux
How would you configure two dsmcad instances on a single Linux client? And why would you want to? To answer the second question, you often need two different dsmcad processes if you are working with database clients and server clusters, where you want the cluster resources to back independently from the local disks. The VCS Cluser Backups page describes how to setup two dsmcads when backing up a cluster disk, this section describes how to set up a separate dsmcad to backup a database on a single Linux server.
To set up two dsmcads, follow the process below. The examples shown give names used to backup an oracle database. The names are just my own examples of course. Use names that are appropriate to your configuration.
Define 2 nodes at your Spectrum Protect server, one for standard backups and one for the Oracle TDP. To make the stuff below a bit more readable, we are going to use Spectrum Protect server TSM1, with IP address 126.96.36.199 and port 1500. The nodes will be called linux001 and linux001_ora.
Create two dsm.opt files, one for each node
dsm.opt, the default node, should contain servername TSM1
dsm_ora.opt should contain servername TSM1_ora
Create two unique node stanzas in the dsm.sys file
In this example the TSM TDP for Oracle will select the databases for the second stanza, so the first stanza backs up all the disks with suitable excludes to avoid copying the database files. If you want two dsmcads for ordinary files, just use appropriate domain statements or include-exclude files to select the data.
Generate the passwords for both node names
dsmc q sess
dsmc q sess -optfile=linux001_ora
IBM supplies a rc.dsmcad init script, usually in /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin. Make a copy of this script for the oracle dsmcad
cp /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin/rc.dsmcad -
Edit rc.dsmcad_linux001_ora and change line
daemon $DSMCAD_BIN -optfile=/opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin/dsm_ora.opt
Create a symbolic link in /etc/init.d/ to point to the new rc.dsmcad init scripts, so the extra DSMCAD starts at boot time
ln -s /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin/rc.dsmcad_linux001_ora dsmcad_linux001_ora
Register the new rc script with chkconfig
chkconfig --add dsmcad_linux001_ora
Test the configuration with "service start" to make sure the scripts load and start without issue
service dsmcad_linux001_ora start
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Backing up a Linux VCS cluster with Spectrum Protect
What is a VCS cluster?
Veritas Cluster Server from Symantec is a software based high availability cluster service that runs on AIX, Linux and Windows operating systems. It allows almost transparent application failover capability similar to HACMP or Microsoft Cluster Server.
The three principal components of VCS are
- Systems, which are machines or LPARs. In the example below, they are VCSDC1 and VCSDC2. Systems can be located in different machine halls or data centres for cross-site resilience.
- Resources, which are pieces of hardware or software, like a disk or dsmcad
- Service Groups, which are all the resources that are needed to be available to run an application
VCS commands for Linux clusters are usually held in /opt/VRTS/bin/ and a few useful commands are:-
hastatus -summary will list the status of systems, groups and resources
hasys -display will check that a cluster is operating
haclus -display will list out cluster information
For backup purposes you will need to know which file systems are owned by VCS and which are just local to the Linux server. Use the mount command, or df -h to find this out.
For VCS backups, you will need to identify a directory on a shared VCS file system that you can use to store Spectrum Protect configuration and log files.
Configuration at the Spectrum Protect server
Assume we have a 2 node cluster called VCS_Cluster, split across 2 datacenters, DC1 and DC2. I'll also assume that we have a single Spectrum Protect server, called
TSM_SERVER, that can failover between DC1 and DC2. The server IP address is 10.11.12.13 and it uses port 1543.
Also, we will assume that the VCS cluster contains 2 filespaces, /VCS and /VCS1. All the Spectrum Protect related cluster data will be held in directory /VCS/tsm/
You then need 3 Spectrum Protect client nodes defined on TSM_SERVER, one for the 'rootvg' or local data backup in each datacentre and one to backup the shared cluster data. These are called VCSDC1, VCSDC2 and VCSSHARE respectively.
These naming standards would not be suitable for a real environment, but are adequate to illustrate the configuration.
Configuration at the Client
You need a rootvg option file on each client, usually held in /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin
and then a dsm.sys file on each client
Note how the domain statements work. The rootvg backup uses DOMAIN ALL-LOCAL, that is, all file spaces, then excludes the two cluster file spaces with DOMAIN -/VCS -/VCS1 The '-' in front of the filespace means exclude.
These two file spaces are then specifically included in the cluster stanza.
Note that the log files for local backup are held on the local /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin directory on each server, but the log files for the shared resource are held on /VCS/tsm/ This ensures that the shared resource logfiles are continuous and preserved on failover. The inclexcl files are held in the same way. You need to allocate these files or Spectrum Protect will not start up.
you also need a shared dsm.opt file in the /VCS/tsm/ directory
You need two dsmcad services defined, a rootvg service that runs on both nodes in the cluster, and a cluster service that runs on whichever node is
hosting the cluster. This dsmcad service needs to fail over automatically with the cluster.
There is an IBM technote that describes how to set up a Spectrum Protect client schedule on a RHEL Linux client. It mentions 2 ways of setting things up so the scheduler is started automatically at boot time. One way is to place a command entry in etc/inittab like this
cad::once:/opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin/dsmcad >/dev/null 2>&1 # TSM Webclient
The other way is to define a /etc/init.d script, and this method simplifies cluster failover, as it gives you easy ways to stop, start, recycle and check dsmcad, with simple commands like
service dsmcad start
service dsmcad stop
service dsmcad restart
service dsmcad status
I recommend you check this link out and follow the instructions given. Once you install the script, you then use the chkconfig command to set the script to run automatically at boot time
/sbin/chkconfig dsmcad on
Use the --list option to check if a service set to start at boot time, and the off option to stop a service from starting at boot time
/sbin/chkconfig dsmcad --list
/sbin/chkconfig dsmcad off
The cluster needs to be able to stop the dsmcad on one node then start it up on a different node. It also needs to be able to query the node that currently owns the cluster and check that the dsmcad is running. However, this needs to be a unique dsmcad name for the cluster to avoid confusion with the dsmcad for the rootvg backups. So define a dsmcad with a different name, on both nodes in the cluster, with the command
ln -s /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin/dsmcad dsmcad.vcs
Take a copy of the IBM script above, call it dsmcad.vcs and amend it to manage a service called dsmcad.vcs. The cluster can now stop or start or query the dsmcad.vcs with the following commands.
/sbin/service dsmcad.vcs stop
/sbin/service dsmcad.vcs start
/sbin/service dsmcad.vcs status
Add this as a resource to the Cluster Group, with a dependency on the disk being available. First, to find Cluster Group resources used command
hagrp -resources VCS_Cluster
Then you may have to set the cluster configuration to read/write before you can change it.
create the dsmcad resource as an application resource
hares -add dsmcad.vcs Application VCS_Cluster
By default, critical is set to 1, which means if dsmcad fails or stops the whole Service Group fails over. Change it to 0 as we don't want to stop the application for a dsmcad failure.
hares -modify dsmcad.vcs Critical 0
Tell the resource what command to execute to start and stop the application (both are required), and tell it what to look for to check the resource is active.
hares -modify dsmcad.vcs StartProgram "/sbin/service dsmcad.vcs start VCS_Cluster"
hares -modify dsmcad.vcs StopProgram "/sbin/service dsmcad.vcs stop VCS_Cluster"
hares -modify dsmcad.vcs MonitorProcesses /opt/tivoli/tsm/client/ba/bin/dsmcad.vcs -optfile=/VCS/tsm/dsm_vcs.opt
Link the dsmcad to the availability of the filesystem, note syntax is link parent child
hares -link MNT -VCS dsmcad.vcs
Enable the resource - this lets the agent track it
hares -modify dsmcad.vcs Enabled 1
Check it out
hares -display dsmcad.vcs
Bring it online and check it came online OK
hares -online dsmcad.vcs -sys VCSDC1
hares -state dsmcad.vcs
Copy the configuration and put it back to readonly
haconf -dump -makero
Use the switch command to fail the cluster over, and check that the dsmcad fails over correctly
hagrp -switch vcstest -to VCSDC1
hagrp -switch vcstest -to VCSDC2
You can check the various cluster actions in the log files, /var/VRTSvcs/log/
Password handling in Unix shell scripts
How can you include a dsmadmc command in a UNIX shell scripts without advertising a name and password by including it in the script, i.e., 'dsmadmc -id=xxxxxx -pa=xxxxxx select ....'?
One way is to set up a 'password file', and have your shell script read it. You would do this by defining password and user variables, reading in the data from the file, then putting the variables in the command
$pass=tail -1 /var/tmp/dsmaccess
$user=head -1 /var/tmp/dsmaccess
dsmadmc -id=$user -pa=$pass
You then protect the password file so only root can read it.
If you only want to run queries from your scripts, then another way is to define a TSM userid, lets call it QUERY which can only issue queries. You can then hardcode the userid and password in your scripts, as there is little security risk in others using it. The problem with this method is that if you have to change the 'QUERY' password, then you have to change all your scripts. Holding the info in a single file is a better option.
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